In an editorial article recently published in the open-access journal Materialsresearchers discussed the mechanical analysis, damage assessment, and prediction of multiscale simulation of composite structures.
Study: Multiscale Simulation of Composite Structures: Damage Assessment, Mechanical Analysis and Prediction. Image Credit: nevodka/Shutterstock.com
Composite structures are being used increasingly in a variety of technical applications. Multiscale simulation is a technology that makes it feasible to research and understand complicated systems and phenomena that are normally too expensive, risky, or even impossible to examine directly through experiments. Due to their complex failure mechanisms and nonuniform deformation, the mechanical characterization of the textile composites is a difficult task.
Polymeric, carbon, and glass fibers are frequently employed to create protective systems. However, it has been discovered in recent years that combining high-strength yarns in various directions results in flexible woven fabrics that are both light and extremely resistant. As a result, aramid fibers are currently the most frequently utilized protection materials.
Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) have useful uses in the building industry. Utilizing such structures is a problem due to the need to define intricate links between the various parameters that make up CFST and the relevant qualities. The advantages of the composite shear wall over conventional reinforced concrete walls are numerous. As a result, numerous experimental experiments to investigate the seismic behavior of composite shear walls have been documented in the literature. However, due to issues with how steel and concrete interact, there weren’t many numerical studies identified in earlier research.
About the Study
In this study, the authors discussed several papers that advanced the field of multiscale simulation of composite structures by using any current computational and/or analytical methods, either by themselves or in combination with experimental techniques, for damage assessment or mechanical analysis and prediction.
An investigation of the progressive damage behavior of a notched single-layer triaxially braided composite subjected to axial tension used a three-dimensional mesoscale finite element model. By analyzing the damage and stress contours at various loading stages, the progressive damage behavior of the fiber bundles was investigated.
The team discussed a study that estimated the extent of cracks in terms of tiny box girder deflection and the amount of load placed on a structure by using a semi-empirical model. Steel fibrous concrete was used to build a set of steel-concrete composite tiny box girders. The gathered dataset was then used to create a condensed formula that provided the maximum crack width. In one investigation, a simplified numerical model was used to examine the impact angle of a bullet during low-velocity impact on Kevlar materials. In this work, a simplified model was constructed to provide the industry with valuable and quick prediction tools.
The researchers looked into a study that discussed the viability of predicting Pu using a feedforward neural network (FNN). To build a hybrid FNN-IWO model and boost its prediction performance, the FNN weights and biases were tuned and optimized using the invasive weed optimization (IWO) evolutionary optimization algorithm. One study looked into and determined the best particle swarm optimization (PSO) settings to utilize to enhance the performance of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems in calculating the buckling strength of circular opening steel beams.
Based on a combination of the finite element method and molecular dynamics (MD), a study established a hybrid numerical formulation to characterize the thermomechanical behavior of nanocomposites (FEM). A computer method was created in a study to examine the vibration behavior of the laminated composite structures.
One of the investigations looked at how adding a recently proposed nanoparticle to a polymer matrix like polyethylene affected its thermomechanical properties. The analysis was based on MD simulations of the polymer nanocomposites’ tensile stress-strain response at various temperatures. A study looked at the flexural behavior of a concrete beam made from two C-sections connected and filled with recycled-aggregate materials (CFST beam).
In a study, infilled steel plates and concrete were used to create smart composite shear walls. The ANSYS software was used to conduct the investigation. In-depth research was done on the mechanical connections between the web plate and the concrete. A study introduced three different model order reduction strategies together with a straightforward Matlab code for addressing the topological optimization for the design of materials.
The findings demonstrated that when the load was greater than 80 kN, cracks started to form in the region of hogging moments. It was found that the middle of the beam, where the most negative moment was present, had the highest cracked zone.
The numerical model had a benefit in that it computed more quickly than a full 3D model by about 90%. The natural frequency for each mode increased with the volume proportion of graphene in the matrix. With a 3.1% overestimation of the flexural strength capacity, the numerical model was able to effectively verify the flexural behavior and failure mode of the corresponding tested specimen.
According to the results, when the distance between the steel plate and concrete wall was extended from 0 to 40 mm, stiffness was increased by 18% when compared to the reference model. At ratios of 95% and 58%, respectively, the stiffness and energy absorption were improved when the thickness of the infill steel plate was increased to 12 mm.
The model was constrained and the lateral offset was decreased when the concrete wall thickness was increased to 150 mm, which improved the energy absorption and ductility at ratios of 32% and 52%, respectively. The ductility and energy absorption was improved by around 66% and 32%, respectively, when the distance between shear studs was increased from 20% to 25%.
In conclusion, this editorial discussed high-quality studies that advanced the research area of multiscale simulation of composite structures by applying any modern analytical or computational methods alone or in combination with experimental approaches to assess their damage, mechanical behavior, and various properties.
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Georgantzinos, SK, Multiscale Simulation of Composite Structures: Damage Assessment, Mechanical Analysis and Prediction. Materials, 15(18), 6494 (2022). https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/15/18/6494.